What is a solar inverter?
A solar inverter, or PV inverter, is a type of electrical converter which converts the variable direct current (DC) output of a solar photovoltaic (PV) panel into a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. It is an important balance of system (BOS) component in a photovoltaic system since it allows the use of ordinary AC-power equipment. Additionally, solar power inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection.
History of Solar Inverters
Solar inverters play a significant role in any solar system, and sometimes, they are even considered to be the brains of a project. Essentially, as the sun shines down onto photovoltaic cells, the semiconductor that can be found in these cells absorbs the light and then transfers the light’s energy to the PV cell. This energy knocks electrons loose, and they move from one layer to another, thus producing an electric current. The energy created is then generally either stored in a battery bank for later use or sent directly to an inverter — depending on the setup and the type of system.
For regular consumer use, an alternating current (AC) is needed since most home appliances make use of it. This is where the solar inverter comes in. The inverter takes the direct current and, in simplified terms, runs it through a transformer. In a way, the inverter is tricking the transformer into thinking that it is getting AC by forcing DC to act in a way similar to AC. In other words, the inverter runs DC through two or more transistors that are rapidly turned on and off and feeding two different sides of the transformer.
In addition to converting DC to AC, inverters can also do other tasks to ensure that the inverter can operate at an optimal performance level. Some of these tasks include data monitoring, advanced utility controls, applications, and system design engineering. Moreover, inverter manufacturers also provide post-installation services that are integral to maintaining energy production and a high level of performance for the project, including preventative maintenance, O&M services, and a quick mean time to repair (MTTR).
Classification of Solar Inverters
As the solar industry continues to grow, the technologies for solar inverters also continue to improve. As a result, there are currently three broad types that a solar inverter can be classified into. These three broad types are:
A standalone inverter is an electrical inverter that converts DC power stored in batteries to AC power that can be used as needed. In a lot of cases, standalone inverters are used in isolated systems where the inverter draws its DC energy from batteries charged by photovoltaic arrays. Additionally, many standalone inverters also incorporate integral battery chargers to replenish the battery from an AC source when available. Normally, they do not interface in any way with the utility grid, and as such, they are not required to have anti-islanding protection.
Standalone inverters are available with three basic power output waveforms: square wave, modified square wave (sometimes called modified sine wave), and pure sine wave. Synchronous inverters and utility companies deliver a pure sine wave.
Square wave inverters have the lowest cost and efficiency. Meanwhile, modified square wave output is an economical choice in power systems where the waveform is not critical. Their high surge capacity enables them to start large motors while their high efficiency makes them economical with power when running small loads like a small light. However, this type of inverter may destroy some low-cost rechargeable tools and flashlights. Additionally, their waveform will not allow many laser printers, copiers, light dimmers, and some variable speed tools to operate.
Meanwhile, sine wave inverters have a slightly higher cost, but they can operate almost anything that can be operated on utility power. They come in various ranges, from 150 watts for small applications to 200,000 watts that can run a small village.
A grid-tie inverter produces an alternating current that is suitable for injecting into an electrical power grid, normally 120 V RMS at 60 Hz or 240 V RMS at 50 Hz. Grid-tie inverters are used between local electrical power generators: solar panel, wind turbine, hydro-electric, and the grid.
To inject electrical power efficiently and safely into the grid, grid-tie inverters have to accurately match the voltage and phase of the grid sine AC waveform. After a grid-tie inverter converts DC to AC, it then synchronizes the two power sources and supplements the main utility with solar power. The primary advantage of this system is that the main’s utility bill can be drastically reduced through solar power.
Grid-tie inverters are designed to shut down automatically upon loss of utility supply, for safety reasons. Unfortunately, this type of system does not function if it does not have the main’s electricity to synchronize with, and so, it cannot be used as a backup system.
Battery Backup Inverters
A battery backup inverter is a special inverter, which is designed to draw energy from a battery, manage the battery charge via an onboard charger, and export excess energy to the utility grid. These inverters are capable of supplying AC energy to selected loads during a utility outage. Additionally, they are required to have anti-islanding protection.
Intelligent Hybrid Inverter
An intelligent hybrid inverter, also sometimes known as a smart grid inverter, is a trending generation of inverter for solar applications using renewable energy for home consumption, especially for solar PV installations. Oftentimes, this kind of inverter is considered as a new technology, but actually, in some parts of the world, the application of such products has been around since the 1990s.
Electricity from solar panels is generated only during the day, with peak generation around midday. Generation fluctuates and may not be synchronized with a load’s electricity consumption. To overcome this gap between what is produced and what is consumed during the evening, when there is no solar electricity production, it is important to store energy for later use and manage energy storage and consumption with an intelligent hybrid inverter. With the development of systems that include renewable energy sources and rising electricity prices, private companies and research laboratories have developed smart inverters for synchronizing energy production and consumption.
Moreover, intelligent hybrid inverters manage photovoltaic array, battery storage, and utility grid, which are all coupled directly to the unit. These modern all-in-one systems are typically highly versatile and can be used for grid-tie, standalone, or backup applications. But even with that said, the primary function of intelligent hybrid inverters is still self-consumption with the use of storage.
What is Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)?
Solar inverters use maximum power point tracking (MPPT) so as to get the maximum possible power from the PV array. MPPT is a technique that is commonly used with wind turbines and photovoltaic solar systems to maximize power extraction under all conditions. Maximum power varies with solar radiation, ambient temperature, and solar cell temperature.
PV solar systems exist in various configurations with regard to their relationship to inverter systems, external grids, battery banks, or other electrical loads. Still, regardless of the ultimate destination of the solar power, the central problem addressed by MPPT is that the efficiency of power transfer from the solar cell depends on both the amount of sunlight falling on the solar panels and the electrical characteristics of the load.
As the amount of sunlight varies, the load characteristic that gives the highest power transfer efficiency changes so that the efficiency of the system is optimized when the load characteristic changes to keep the power transfer at the highest efficiency. This load characteristic is referred to as the maximum power point (MPP), and MPPT is essentially the process of finding this point and keeping the load characteristic there.
Electrical circuits can be designed to present arbitrary loads to the photovoltaic cells and then convert the voltage, current, or frequency to suit other devices or systems. And MPPT solves the problem of choosing the best load to be presented to the cells in order to get the most usable power out.
Solar cells have a complicated relationship between solar irradiation, temperature, and total resistance that produces a non-linear output efficiency known as the I-V curve. It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the cells and determine a resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions. MPPT devices are usually integrated into an electric power converter system that provides voltage or current conversion, filtering, and regulation for driving various loads, including power grids, batteries, or motors.
Furthermore, the fill factor, more commonly known by its abbreviation FF, is a parameter which, in conjunction with the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current (ISC) of the panel, determines the maximum power from a solar cell. Fill factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum power from the solar cell to the product of VOC and ISC.
Types of MPPT Algorithms
In this method of perturb-and-observe, the controller adjusts the voltage by a small amount from the array and measures power. If the power increases, further adjustments in that direction are tried until power no longer increases. This method is the most common, although it can result in oscillations of power output.
Because of the fact that this method depends on the rise of the curve of power against voltage below the maximum power point and the fall above that point, the perturb-and-observe is also known as a hill-climbing method. As was previously mentioned, this method is the most commonly used MPPT algorithm because of its ease of implementation. Additionally, perturb-and-observe may result in top-level efficiency, given that a proper predictive and adaptive hill climbing strategy is adopted.
In the method of incremental conductance, the controller measures incremental changes in PV array current and voltage to predict the effect of a voltage change. This method requires more computation in the controller, but it can track changing conditions more rapidly than the perturb-and-observe method. That said, just like the perturb-and-observe algorithm, the incremental conductance method can produce oscillations in power output.
Moreover, this method makes use of the incremental conductance (dI/dV) of the photovoltaic array to compute the sign of the change in power with respect to voltage (dP/dV). The incremental conductance method computes the maximum power point by comparison of the incremental conductance (I∆/V∆) to the array conductance (I/V). When these two are the same (I/V = I∆/V∆), the output voltage is the MPP voltage. The controller then maintains this voltage until the irradiation changes, and the process is repeated.
The incremental conductance method is based on the observation that at the maximum power point dP/dV = 0, and that P = IV. The current from the array can be expressed as a function of the voltage: P = I(V)V. Therefore, dP/dV = VdI/dV + I(V). Setting this equal to zero yields: dI/dV = -I(V)/V. And so, the maximum power point is achieved when the incremental conductance is equal to the negative of the instantaneous conductance.
The term “constant voltage” in MPP tracking is used to describe different techniques by different authors. One technique describes the output voltage being regulated to a constant value under all conditions while another describes the output voltage being regulated based on a constant ratio to the measured open-circuit voltage (VOC). The latter technique is referred to, in contrast, as the “open voltage” method by some authors. If the output voltage is held constant, there is no attempt to track the maximum power point, so in the strictest sense, it is not a maximum power point tracking technique. That said, it still has some advantages in cases when the MPPT tends to fail. As a result, it is oftentimes used to supplement an MPPT method.
In the “constant voltage” MPPT method, also known as the “open voltage method,” the power delivered to the load is temporarily interrupted, and the open-circuit voltage with zero current is measured. The controller then resumes operation with the voltage controlled at a fixed ratio, such as 0.76 of the open-circuit voltage VOC.
Typically, this is a value that has been determined to be the maximum power point, either empirically or based on modeling, for expected operating conditions. Thus, the operating point of the PV array is kept near the MPP by regulating the array voltage and matching it to the fixed reference voltage Vref = kVOC. The value of Vref is determined as a ratio to VOC. One of the inherent approximations in the “constant voltage” ratio method is that the ratio of the MPP voltage to VOC is only approximately constant, so it leaves room for further possible optimization.
In this method of MPPT, the MPP voltage (VMPP) is estimated by measuring the temperature of the solar module and comparing it against a reference. Since changes in irradiation levels have a negligible effect on the maximum power point voltage, its influences may be ignored. The voltage is assumed to vary linearly with the temperature changes.
The algorithm calculates the following equation: VMPP(T) = VMPP(Tref) + 𝜇VMPP(T – Tref). In this equation, VMPP is the voltage at the maximum power point for a given temperature, Tref is a reference temperature, T is the measured temperature, and 𝜇VMPP is the temperature coefficient of VMPP.
There are a few advantages to this method. First is its simplicity — the algorithm solves one linear equation, and so, it does not consume much computational power. Additionally, it can also be implemented as analog or digital circuits because of its simplicity. And since temperature varies slowly with time, there are no steady-state oscillation and instability. This method is also low-cost since temperature sensors are usually very cheap, and it is robust against noise. The only disadvantage of this method is that an estimation error might not be negligible for low irradiation levels (e.g. below 200 W/m2).
The current sweep method makes use of a sweep waveform for the PV array current such that the I-V characteristic of the PV array is obtained and updated at fixed time intervals. The maximum power point voltage can then be computed from the characteristic curve at the same intervals.
Comparison of Methods
Both perturb-and-observe and incremental conductance are examples of “hill-climbing” methods that can find the local maximum of the power curve for the operating condition of the PV array, and so, they can provide a true maximum power point.
Furthermore, the perturb-and-observe method requires oscillating power output around the maximum power point even under steady-state irradiance. Meanwhile, the incremental conductance method has the advantage over the perturb-and-observe method in that it can determine the maximum power point without oscillating around this value. In addition to that, it can also perform maximum power point tracking under rapidly varying irradiation conditions with higher accuracy than the perturb-and-observe method.
However, the incremental conductance method can unintentionally produce oscillations and can perform erratically under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The sampling frequency is decreased due to the higher complexity of the algorithm compared to the perturb-and-observe method.
In the constant voltage ratio method, the current from the photovoltaic array must be set to zero momentarily to measure the open-circuit voltage and then afterward set to a predetermined percentage of the measured voltage, usually around 76%. Energy may be wasted during the time the current is set to zero. The approximation of 76% as the MPP/VOC ratio is not necessarily accurate. Although simple and low-cost to implement, the interruptions reduce array efficiency and do not ensure finding the actual maximum power point. However, efficiencies of some systems may reach above 95%.
Just like the conventional solar inverters, a solar micro-inverter, or simply known as microinverter, is a plug-and-play device used in photovoltaics that also converts DC generated by a single solar module to AC. The biggest difference between microinverters and conventional string and central solar inverters is that a single inverter is connected to multiple solar panels. Meanwhile, microinverters electrically isolate the panels from each other. And so, the output from several microinverters can be combined and often fed to the electrical grid.
Because of the fact that microinverters electrically isolate the panels from each other, they have several advantages over conventional inverters. For one thing, small amounts of shading, debris, or snow lines on any of the solar modules do not necessarily reduce the output of the entire array. Each microinverter harvests optimum power by performing MPPT for its connected module. Other advantages that microinverters offer are simplicity in system design, lower amperage wires, simplified stock management, and added safety.
However, microinverters also have their own share of disadvantages. The primary ones include higher initial equipment cost per peak watt than the equivalent power of a central inverter since each microinverter needs to be installed adjacent to a panel (usually on a roof). This also makes microinverters harder to maintain and more costly to remove and replace. That is why some manufacturers have addressed these issues by adding built-in microinverters in solar panels.
A microinverter has often a longer lifespan than a central inverter, which will need replacement during the lifespan of the solar panels. With this, the initial financial disadvantage may become an advantage on the run.
Meanwhile, a power optimizer is a type of technology that is similar to a microinverter and also does panel-level maximum power point tracking. But it does not convert to AC per module.
Grid-tied Solar Inverters
Solar grid-tie inverters are designed to quickly disconnect from the grid of the utility grid goes down. This is an NEC requirement that ensures that in the event of a blackout, the grid-tie inverter will shut down to prevent the energy it produces from harming any line workers who are sent to fix the power grid.
Grid-tie inverters that are available on the market today use a number of different technologies. The inverters may use the newer high-frequency transformers, conventional low-frequency transformers, or no transformer. Instead of converting direct current directly to 120 or 240 volts AC, high-frequency transformers employ a computerized multi-step process that involves converting the power to high-frequency AC and then back to DC and then to the final AC output voltage.
Historically, there have been concerns about having transformerless electrical systems feel into the public utility grid. The concerns stem from the fact that there is a lack of galvanic isolation between the DC and AC circuits, which could allow the passage of dangerous DC faults to the AC side. Since 2005, the NFPA’s NEC allows transformerless (or non-galvanically) inverters. The VDE 0126-1-1 and IEC 6210 also have been amended to allow and define the safety mechanisms needed for such systems. Primarily, residual or ground current detection is used to detect possible fault conditions. Also, isolation tests are performed to ensure DC to AC separation.
Many solar inverters are designed to be connected to a utility grid, and they will not operate when they do not detect the presence of the grid. They contain special circuitry to precisely match the voltage, frequency, and phase of the grid.
Solar Pumping Inverters
Advanced solar pumping inverters convert DC voltage from the solar array into AC voltage to drive submersible pumps directly without the need for batteries or other energy storage devices. By utilizing MPPT, solar pumping inverters regulate output frequency to control the speed of the pumps in order to save the pump motor from damage.
Solar pumping inverters usually have multiple ports to allow the input of DC current generated by PV arrays — one port to allow the output of AC voltage and a further port for input from a water-level sensor.
The Solar Inverter Market
As of 2014, conversion efficiency for state-of-the-art solar converters reached more than 98%. While string inverters are used in residential to medium-sized commercial PV systems, central inverters cover the large commercial and utility-scale market. Market-share for central and string inverters are about 50% and 48%, respectively, thus leaving less than 2% to microinverters.
Inverter/Converter Market in 2014
|String inverter||Up to 100 kWpeak||98%||50%||Cost (estimated) €0.15 watt-peak. Easy to replace|
|Central inverter||Above 100 kWpeak||98.5%||48%||€0.10 per watt-peak. High reliability. Often solar along with a service contract.|
|Microinverter||Module power range||90%–95%||1.5%||€0.40 per watt-peak. Ease of replacement concerns.|
|DC/DC converter/Power optimizer||Module power range||98.8%||N/A||€0.40 per watt-peak. Ease of replacement concerns. An inverter is still needed. About 0.75 GWP is installed in 2013.|
Market Research Future has invested time and resources to properly understand the global solar inverter market, which is expected to grow at a highly optimistic CAGR 15.65% during the review period from 2017 to 2023. The growth of the market at that rate is expected to reach a market value of US$ 24,507.3 Mn by 2023.
One of the major forces driving up the growth of the inverter market is the growing number of solar power plants connected with the grid through an on-grid solar inverter. This is because increasing installations of off-grid solar panels for commercial, industrial, and residential use require a reliable and safe power source converter, which a solar inverter provides.
The global solar inverter market has a veteran potential growth over the past few years, and it has been projected that the market will nurture at the same pace during the forecast period. In addition to the rising number of solar power plant installations, other factors that affect the growth of the solar inverter market include cost efficiency, lengthy operating life, and capacity to operate under fluctuating energy circumstances. Increasing the incorporation of intelligent working parts and the implementation of sophisticated cloud techniques are other factors as well.
In particular, the Asia Pacific region is the largest market for solar inverters. In 2018, the region resulted in over 50% share of the solar inverter market. This can be immediately ascribed to ordering several grid-scale solar plants across the region, particularly China and India. Government subsidies and buy incentives played a big role in pushing the region’s solar power plants. Specifically, China is the biggest solar-based nation in the world, and it is regarded as a driving force for the global solar sector. Over the past few years, the country has altered the worldwide energy map with an exceptional rise in solar investment. In addition to China, Japan has also led significantly to the Asian economy due to its market players and technological advances combined with increasing demand for intelligent solar.
After the Asia Pacific region, Europe accounts for the second leading market for solar inverters globally. Solar is a primary source of renewable energy in most of the European countries. Over the past couple of years, several solar power projects have erected in the region, and many are still under construction as well. All these projects that are under construction are expected to contribute to the market growth, thus contributing to the primary energy production in the region.
The solar inverter market in North America is growing rapidly as it is experiencing a broad uptake of green energy generation systems. Increasing emphasis on curtailing the costs of power generation and substantial investments made in smart solar power plants to increase power generation and storage capacity would foster the market in the region. Additionally, the rising production of renewable energy generation led by government initiatives supports the growth of the regional market.
The growth of the solar inverter market means that there is also a rise in the number of companies that manufacture and sell solar inverters of all kinds. The following are only some of the most famous manufacturers and wholesalers that are changing the market of solar inverters.
Top Solar Inverter Manufacturers in China
- Sungrow Power Supply. Sungrow Power Supply is a key high-tech enterprise in China, and the company specializes in research and development (R&D), production, sales, and service of new energy power supply devices for solar energy, wind energy, and energy storage.
- Shenzhen SORO Electronics. Shenzhen SORO Electronics is a professional UPS manufacturer in the field of UPS power for over a decade.
- INVT Solar Technology. Founded in 2002, INVT Solar Technology is a company that provides products and services in the field of industrial automation and energy power.
- Hoymiles Converter Technology. Hoymiles Converter Technology is a leading microinverter company that specializes in Module-Level Power Electronics (MLPE) solutions for global solar investors and end-users.
- Prostar Solar. Founded in 1998, Guangdong Prostar New Energy Technology, or commonly known as Prostar Solar, is a Chinese leading manufacturer of power quality and energy solutions for the industrial, residential, and commercial sectors.
- East Group. Established in 1989, East Group is one of the leading power supply manufacturers in China.
- Grandglow New Energy. Grandglow New Energy is a company that has always been focusing on researching and developing, manufacturing, selling, as well as serving customers with the grid-tied inverter, off-grid inverter, solar pump inverter, wind generator inverter, and all other renewable energy products.
- Divine New Energy. Founded in 1991, Divine New Energy is a company that provides professional solar products and system solutions.
- Ningbo Deye Inverter Technology. Ningbo Deye Inverter Technology, a subsidiary of Deye Technology Group, is one of the world’s professional manufacturers of inverters and solar air conditioners.
- Neway Power. Neway Power is a professional manufacturer of solar power products located in Suzhou, which is near Shanghai.
Top Solar Inverter Manufacturers in India
- R.S. Associates. R.S. Associates Pvt., Ltd. is a manufacturer that primarily focuses on supplying various kinds of industrial machines and accessories.
- S.R. Electronics. S.R. Electronics is a renowned manufacturer and supplier that specializes in the design and manufacture of electrical components and energy-saving solar products.
- S.S. Solar Energy. Established in 2008, S.S. Solar Energy is a company that is involved in the manufacturing and wholesaling of an extensive range of solar power and lighting products.
- Sabi Power Systems. Sabi Power Systems is a well-known manufacturer and supplier of online UPS, line interactive UPS, inverters, servo stabilizers, power factor controllers, and CVT.
- Sakthi Electrical Control. Sakthi Electrical Control is a pioneer in the field of power conditioning that serves the industry by manufacturing, wholesaling, distributing, service-providing, trading, retailing, and exporting a wide array of products.
- VS Saurya EnerTech. VS Saurya EnerTech Pvt., Ltd. is a company that aims to deploy and maintain high-quality engineering solutions using solar for India’s energy needs.
- Shiv Power Corporation. Established in 2003, Shiv Power Corporation is a company that is engaged in the manufacturing, exporting, and supplying of acoustic generator canopies and enclosures.
- Signotron. Signotron started out in 1985 as a manufacturer of industrial control and pollution control products. Eventually, the company has shifted their focus to power electronics products, which combined electronics and renewable energy.
- S.L.V. Power Solutions. SLV Power Solutions is a reputable company that manufactures and supplies a wide range of UPS and inverters.
- Silicon Leaf Solar. Established in 202, Silicon Leaf Solar is an organization that is engaged in manufacturing and exporting a wide assortment of solar products.
Top Microinverter Manufacturers in the United States
- Enphase Energy. Founded in 2006, Enphase Energy is a NASDAQ-listed energy technology company that primarily designs and manufactures software-driven home energy solutions that span solar generation, home energy storage, and web-based monitoring and control.
- SolarBridge Technologies/SunPower. Based in Austin, Texas, SolarBridge Technologies is a manufacturer and provider of solar microinverters and solar inverters for photovoltaic arrays.
- Advanced Energy Industries. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. is a company that primarily develops power and control technologies for the manufacture of semiconductors, flat panel displays, data storage products, industrial coatings, medical devices, solar cells, and architectural glass.
- CyboEnergy. Located in California, CyboEnergy Inc. is a subsidiary of CyboSoft and General Cybernation Group Inc. The company primarily focuses on the development, manufacturing, marketing, and servicing of the product lines in the energy and clean energy field.
- Petra Systems. Petra Systems Inc. is a leading global technology provider for markets of renewable energy, energy efficiency, and distributed power generation.
- Chilicon Power. Chilicon Power has been involved with generously financed startups in the past, and initially, their focus was on “nano-inverters” for building integrated photovoltaic modules.
- Apparent. Founded in 2007, Apparent is a clean-power and energy efficiency company that works with investment partners and service providers to construct and manage sustainable facilities, thus generating cleaner power while outperforming traditional generation.
- Blue Frog Solar. Blue Frog Solar LLC was founded in 2011 in Poulsbo, Washington with a goal to bring the finest solar design and technology to the Pacific Northwest. The company is primarily known for developing and selling microinverters.
- eIQ Energy. Located in Santa Clara, California, eIQ Energy Inc. was founded in 2007 by experts in power electronics, power semiconductors, and power conversion architectures to provide power conversion technologies to the renewable energy world.
- HiQ Solar. HiQ Solar is an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) that aims to bring their technology to market through partnerships with large solar system manufacturers and installation companies that use standard or customized versions of their products.
Top Microinverter Manufacturers in India
- Crystal Solar Energy. Crystal Solar Energy focuses on solutions that will increase the economic returns of solar energy.
- F Choice Solar Tech India. F Choice Solar Tech India Pvt. Ltd. is a multinational energy solution company that was established in 2008.
- Nordic (India) Solutions. Founded in 2010, Nordic (India) Solutions Pvt. Ltd. is a privately owned firm that focuses on the manufacturing, exporting, trading, and supplying of a wide assortment of solar products.
- SmartTrak Solar Systems. SmartTrack Solar Systems Pvt. Ltd. is a pioneer and a leading manufacturing company that independently deals and designs innovative solar tracking solutions.
- UR Energy India. Established in 2009, UR Energy India Pvt. Ltd. has become a well-renowned manufacturer and exporter of solar products within a short span of time.
- HH Energy. Established in 2010, Achintya Projects and Services, or commonly known as HH Energy, is a leading manufacturer, trader, service provider, importer, and exporter of a wide array of electronic and solar products.
- Three Sixty Power Products. Established in 2007, Three Sixty Power Products Pvt. Ltd. is an ISO9001:2008 certified company that manufactures, supplies, distributes, wholesales, and exports the finest array of power backup products.
- Ved Prakash Energy Solution. Established in 2016, Ved Prakash Energy Solution Pvt. Ltd. is a well-renowned trader, supplier, and service provider of solar products.
- Vivetto Systems. Founded in 2012, Vivetto Systems is a sole proprietorship based organization that holds skills in the manufacturing and supplying of a wide array of LED light bulbs, solar charge controllers, solar combiner boxes, solar array junction boxes, and many more.
- Triple Yes Battery Depot. Since the company’s establishment in 1998, Triple Yes Battery Depot has dedicated their whole endeavors towards wholesale trading of automotive batteries, inverter trolleys, tubular batteries, online UPS and battery combo, power inverters, and many more.
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Transformerless inverters are popular in Europe and increasing becomingmore common with 3-phase central inverters. But what exactly doestransformerless really mean? Well traditionally inverters have built intransformers inside each unit. Although is a transformer really neededinside the inverter? Most buildings have a transformer on the same lineas the solar grid tie inverter, therefore more than often thetransformer in the grid tie inverter is really not needed.
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