Wholesale MPPT Charge Controllers for PV Systems
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is essentially an algorithm included in charge controllers that is used for extracting maximum available power from PV modules under certain conditions. The voltage at which PV modules can produce maximum power is called “maximum power point” or “peak power voltage.”
Maximum power varies with solar radiation, ambient temperature, and solar cell temperature. Usually, PV modules produce power with a maximum power voltage of around 17 V when measured at a cell temperature of 25°C. It can drop to around 15 V on a very hot day, but on a very cold day, it can rise to 18 V.
Mechanism of Solar MPPT Charge Controllers
The chief principle of MPPT is to extract the maximum available power from PV modules by making them operate at the most efficient voltage (maximum power point). The way this works is that first, MPPT checks the output of the PV modules, and then it compares it to the battery voltage. After that, MPPT then fixes what is the best power that PV modules can produce to charge the battery and converts it to the best voltage to get the maximum current into the battery. Additionally, MPPT can also supply power to a DC load, which is connected directly to the battery.
MPPT is most effective under the following conditions: 1) cold weather or cloudy and hazy days (normally, PV modules work better at cold temperatures and MPPT is utilized to extract the maximum power available from them), and 2) when the battery is deeply discharged (MPPT can extract more current and charge the battery if the state of charge in the battery is lower).
Advantages of a MPPT Solar Charge Controller
Basically, an MPPT solar charge controller is the charge controller that is embedded with the MPPT algorithm to maximize the amount of current going into the battery from the PV modules. This kind of solar charge controller is a DC-DC converter that operates by taking DC input from PV modules, changing it to AC and converting it back to a different DC voltage and current to exactly match the PV modules to the battery.
The MPPT solar charge controller has a lot of advantages. The following are some of its main ones:
- In any application where the PV system is the energy source, the MPPT solar charge controller is used to correct for detecting the variations in the current-voltage characteristics of solar cells and shown by the I-V curve.
- The MPPT solar charge controller extracts maximum power from PV modules. In other words, it forces PV modules to operate at a voltage close to the maximum power point to draw maximum available power.
- It also allows users to use PV modules with a higher voltage output than the operating voltage of the battery system.
- The MPPT solar charge controller reduces the complexity of the system while the output of the system is high efficiency. Moreover, it can also be applied to use with more energy sources.
- The MPPT solar charge controller can be applied to other renewable energy sources, such as small water turbines, wind power turbines, and many more.
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